** Artikel in Deutsch : Die Expansion des Universums in 4 Dimensionen - die Richtung der Zeit
**

article in PDF- version G.Rowski 2011/01/07 last update 2018/01/05

2. Why are natural constants match

2.1. Speed of light - a theory of relation_{2013_07_14}

2.2. What is spacial expansion with aplication 2.1?_{2018_01_05}

2.3. Behind the event horizon_{2015_10_21}

3. Is time real in the universe?

4. The expansion of the universe into spatial directions

5. The expansion of the universe into dimension of time

6. Summary

additional

The end of the time or why black holes can not come into existence in this universe 2011.06.01

There is no movement without matter and no matter without movement. Movement is matter’s way of existence.

Assuming that there has been a big bang and our universe has come into being, we can postulate that it had been a whole before, disaggregated into its components (here: the natural constants) which make up our universe, by the big bang.

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If we were to change the speed of light and we look at how the other constants must change in order to keep the same relation to the speed of light.Since the speed of light is a relation between space and time, it can be changed in several ways – only the spatial component, both components or only the temporal component.

Three cases correspondingly are compared:

Case 1: only the spatial component changes – less distance in the same time

Case 2: the spatial and temporal component changes – less distance in more time

(in this consideration,spatial and temporal components change in the same relationship)

Case 3: only the temporal component changes – same distance in more time

The comparison for better clarity will be with normed constants. All constants are put for the initial situation with unchanged lightspeed 1. The change of the speed of light

Case 1 :` r = 0. 810 m ; t = 1. 000 s`

Case 2 :` r = 0. 900 m ; t = 1. 111 s`

Case 3 : `r = 1. 000 m ; t = 1. 235 s`

all results are rounded to 3 places after the comma

In all 3 Cases we have only considered which of the physical
constants depends of the spatial and witch depends of the temporal
component (and in which way). We start with the electric constant`
ε _{0}` and the magnetic
constant

Case 1 :`
ε _{0} = 1. 524
As/Vm ; μ_{0}
= 1. 000 N/A^{2}`

Case 2 :

Case 3 :

The elementary charge remains unchanged by the change of the
light velocity and so remains the same for all systems 1.

If one checks the electrostatic force of two cargo loads in the space
to each other now, and room component changed the accompanying arises
the following values with the new ε_{0}
with

initial situation`
c=1m/s : ε _{0} = 1. 000 As/Vm; r = 1. 000 m; 4 * π * F = 1. 000 N `

Case 1 :

Case 2 :

Case 3 :

Result for the electrostatic force gets
cases for all three and one this exactly is like the initial
situation–the force remains unchanged by a change of the
speed of light.

If the force remains constant in all cases looked at, this also should
apply to all other considerations. If we consider the formula `F
= m * a` , in order to keep the
force constant, the
mass must change as the acceleration, as a relation of `a
= r / t ^{2}`
with a changed spatial
or temporal component, has in the new systems
other
values.

Case 1 : `a = 0.810 m/s²; m = 1.235 kg; F= 1. 000 N`

Case 2 :` a = 0. 729 m/s²; m = 1.372 kg; F= 1. 000 N`

Case 3 :` a = 0. 656 m/s²; m = 1.524 kg; F= 1. 000 N`

The table of values show
how individual components change with the change in the end system

This means, that a change of the speed of light wouldn't be
noticed, as all surroundings are changed in the
same way - One would shrink to fit in with the surroundings.

This sounds a little like the Lorentz transformation in the special
relativity theory.

We check length, the time and mass for a system which moves with 0.2 -
fold light velocity opposite a resting
system.

From the Lorentz transformation one gets himself the following values,
the length `r = 1 m`
in the resting system transformed with the relationshipto
`0. 980m`, the time `t = 1 s`
with the relation to` 1.
021 s`, the velocity withant
`v=1 m/s` to `0. 960 m/s`
and the mass `m` for `1 kg`
with to `1.
021 kg` in the moved system.

A speed would correspondingly change around the factor `0. 960`.
What would happen in a world with a speed of light with factor 0. 960.
One gets the following values if one takes the 0. 960 arising as an original value for speed of light for the above scheme now.

In case 2 (spatial and
temporal
component change in the same relation), we get the same values as
from the Lorentz transformation for the length change and time
change. Only at the mass change looks like different. Immediately it
explains it self if one writes down the equation for the mass for the
Lorentz transformation exactly.

In the Lorentz
transformation, the movement is usually only in one direction, that the last two factors
are 1.

Of course the speed of
light changes in
all directions, that the value of the calculated mass change must be
different for the Lorentz transformation around the factor here.

The Lorentz transformation as a special
case for the analysis of a changed speed of light, with the
qualitative difference, that the mass change of the Lorentz
transformation is direction-dependent, the mass change in the other
calculation is direction-independent as the velocity of spreading of
the light.

**The speed of light – the relationship between space and time –
defining size for all spatial and temporal measurements and
interactions.**

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The universe expands, it grows spatially.

This means, the physical matter doesn’t only fly out in all directions, but all of space expands similarly to the rubber surface of a balloon being inflated.

The empty space is characterized by fields, there are quantum fluctuations and there is a vacuum energy –

What is space really? If space holds vacuum energy, it also contains mass which, according to the theory of relativity leads to an interplay of mass, or as an equivalent, a mere question of energy.

Spacial expansion with application 2.1 Space may be considered as a measurable distance of definable points in 3 dimensions. The expansion of the space is a measurable increase in the distance of objects to each other. For the determination of distance, length normals are usually used, for example by mechanical means: fixed distance of atoms in a solid or electromagnetic type: over wavelengths (on closer inspection, only the latter remains). If the speed of light is the all-determining relation, a reduction in the speed of light (from 2.1 Case 1 and 2) only appears as an expansion of the universe.

Example

If the speed of light in a system from c to c' is decreased to 25%, halve all spatial dimensions, which leads to an increase in the measured distances in the image by r and r' are shown.

The unit length r varies with the reduction of the speed of light to r'= 0.5 r. Within the system with reduced speed of light, the unit length is still unchanged 1. If now two balls with a radius 1 in the starting system are positioned at a measured distance of 7 unit lengths, the measured distance would double to 14 unit lengths after a change in the speed of light to 25% system 1' at the same position.

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Schwarzschild radius

M:Mass G: gravitational constant RS: Schwarzschild radius c: speed of light

That would mean, that we could see behind the event horizon of this matter. We would always still be in the known universe. This in turn then suggests that the event horizon is a relativistic appearance. A crossing over the event horizon is proved to be difficult see additional. However, there is then the possibility that matter for a lower "speed of light "applies to the formation of black holes can contribute.

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This led physicians like Bolzmann (see [2] "es gibt keine objektiv ausgezeichnete Zeitrichtung"-there is no objectively distinguished time direction)to state the case that time exists only within consciousness respectively, time is only a human perception which orders experience, chronologically and causally. It is of no physical relevance.

See also Paul Davies‘ contribution in „Spektrum der Wissenschaft – Der rätselhafte Fluss der Zeit [3]

and „Gestern und morgen sind eins“ in „Bild der Wissenschaft“, volume 1/2008 [4]

This knowledge is attained by observing a physical model and not by observing reality which also proves to be difficult since the molecular level cannot be observed even up to the present day.

In our daily reality, however, the dimension of time does exist. It is encountered daily in a most simple form, e.g. a hot cup of coffee gets (unfortunately) gradually colder. In thermodynamic terms this is called an increase of entropy.

If not shown in the model, the dimension of time cannot be found there either.

Here we have a frequently quoted example: A billard ball is seen on film rolling over the billard table, it isn’t possible to say after wards if the film is moving forwards or backwards.

The whole functions only in a frictionless mode. In reality, one can ascertain that the billard ball is decreasing in speed and it becomes warmer, therefore one can also tell whether the film is moving forwards or backwards.

The deviation of the model from reality in this case, is even greater than assumed at first sight. It is friction in mechanics which holds the world together. In an attempt to drive a car without friction, - we could or would not move, we wouldn’t get any place. Without friction the ball previously mentioned wouldn’t roll either, it wouldn’t even exist.

Generally, all processes can be understood as an exchange and/or a conversion of energy. In doing so, the interaction with the surroundings within the model is eliminated. That which is commonly accounted for the direction of time, is the interaction with the surroundings. Energy is always being emitted or absorbed to or from the surroundings, depending on whether the observed process is of more or less energy than its surroundings. All attempts to eliminate this, for experimental purposes, unwanted interaction, will fail.

Each system strives for an energetically stable state which leads to a basic dimension of time. Time itself is based on the fact, that the dispersal of interaction takes place at fastest, at the speed of light.

Time within the universe can be defined as follows:

The tangible universe is growing older and expanding in space. Strictly speaking, this is the same, "growing older" can be also explained as an expansion into the dimension of time- against the existing view it moves through the time.

passage past 2011_07_22

The view of an expansion in time direction has an interesting aspect to past and future.

There are the following model, to explain of the space expansion:

One imagines the space of the universe as a rubber surface of an rubber balloon (in this model there are only two space dimensions). The galaxies are points at the rubber surface.

If now the rubber balloon will be inflated, the rubber surface and in this way the distance of the galaxies to each other becomes bigger - expansion in space. Now the model can be simply extended with the time dimension. The inside of the rubber balloon is the past and outside is the future. Then the past would be in the universe but not the future.

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The early stage the development of the universe was very hot. It was so hot that there was approximately the same amount of particles and their antiparticles present (permanent come into existence and annihilate one another). The temperature sank in accordance with the rise in expansion. All particles currently known to us originated approximately 3 seconds after the big bang [5].

The entire history of the universe is unimaginable without expansion into dimensions of space or depending on the perspective, without cooling down, as one correlates with the other.

It can be imagined, by visualising a very hot gas mixture: Carbon dioxide, CO

According to the probability of quantum mechanics, there will be individual CO

From the adiabatic view, there won’t be any changes in the situation, the system would be static and look the same at any point in time.

Development can only take place when the gas mixture expands adiabatic, pressure and temperature sink, which leads again to an increasing number of CO

In a quantum-mechanical context, the existence of CO

According to the rules of quantum mechanics, the total number of micro states never changes.

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The biggest possible wave length in the universe is defined by the light cone from the theory of relativity (limited by the dimension of space). In other terms, the smallest frequency depends on the age of the universe (limited by the dimension of time). Only one vibration per age of the universe is possible.

t1 : point of time 1

t2 : point of time 2 after point of time 1

$\lambda (t1)$ : biggest possible wave length at point of time t1

$f(t1)=1/t1$ : lowest possible frequency at point of time t1

$\lambda (t2)$ : biggest possible wave length at point of time t2

$f(t2)=1/t2$ : lowest possible frequency at point of time t2

A light cone is the path that a flash of light, emanating from a single event (localized to a single point in space and a single moment in time) and traveling in all directions, would take through spacetime. Because it is thought that signals and other causal influences cannot travel faster than light in relativity, the light cone plays an essential role in defining the concept of causality. For a given event E, the set of events that lie on or inside the future light cone of E would also be the set of events that could receive a signal sent out from the position and time of E, so the future light cone contains all the events that could potentially be causally influenced by E.

If the biggest possible wave length is defined by the light cone or by the age of the universe, the biggest possible wave length grows in time (with the spread of the universe in the direction of time). The biggest possible wave length can be, in the area of quantum-mechanics, depicted as an energy level. It would, therefore, represent the smallest possible energy level to the corresponding point in the dimension of time. The lowest energy level is also called vacuum energy or zero point energy E0.

In formulas

$E0=\xbd*\hslash *\omega $

$\hslash $: reduced Planck constant

$\omega $: related angular frequency

with

$\omega =2*\pi *c/\lambda (t)$

$\lambda (t)$:wavelength according to the light cone (age of the universe)

$c$: speed of light

after integration resulting in

$E0(t)$=ℏ*π*c/λ(t)

$E0(t1)$ : lowest possible energy level at point of time t1 corresponds to wave length $\lambda (t1)$

$E0(t2)$ : lowest possible energy level at point of time t2 corresponds to wave length $\lambda (t2)$

Only energy levels higher than E0(t) can be taken. If an event in the past releases energy, e.g. an electron reverts from the animated state to its basic state and releases electromagnetic radiation, the energy balance at the point of time “t1”, is smaller than at the point of time “t2 “, since the energy volume to be emitted to the environment is defined by the smallest possible energy potential E0. This would become noticeable by a red shift of the emitted radiation at the time “t1” to the emitted radiation at the time “t2”. Within the atoms, the relative positions of the orbitals to each other, change with the expansion of the universe in time.

The light spectrum of distant galaxies appears shifted to red, which can be put down to the expansion of the universe in the dimension of space. As light has been emitted also at previous points in time, in this case part of the red shift can be attributed to the expansion in the dimension of time.

There are two interpretations with regards to the number of micro states of quantum mechanics;

1. The total number of micro states is constant, only their position to each other changes.

2. The total number of micro states grows in time.

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If space holds vacuum energy, it also has mass which, in compliance with the theory of relativity, leads to interaction of mass or, as an equivalent, is a pure question of energy. Space is of physical relevance. The absolutely empty space can be regarded as having model purposes only.

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